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 As a general rule, ceilings of most ordinary rooms and functional spaces were left to expose their construction that was based on timber joists covered by matting.  In contrast, important rooms such as guest and reception rooms of the upper floor had elaborately paneled and decorated ceilings. Some ceilings had geometric patterns such as concentric lozenges or opposing diagonals with battens.  Others were paneled in wood but hand-painted with floral and arabesque decorations often in bright colors.  Recurrent decorative motifs include stars, circles, octagons, lozenges, and floral and geometric patterns painted in cobalt-blue or other colors.

Ceilings often had a central painted medallion in the middle to create a focal point of attention although, sometimes, a three-dimensional pendant medallion was employed.  Moreover, some ceilings also had a slightly protruding cornice all around their lower section in order to create a framing effect and to enlarge the visual impact of the ceiling.  These ceiling cornices were sometimes done in gypsum and in muqarnas design.  On rare occasions some main room ceilings are vaulted with either exposed brickwork or plastered and then painted with decorations.



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